Note:

This is a U.S. EPA publication. Ohio EPA made the conversion to electronic form and distributes it for the purpose of disseminating pollution prevention information more widely. Please submit questions or comments to p2mail@epa.state.oh.us.

Some of the figures and diagrams have been deleted from this electronic file of U.S. EPA's Facility Pollution Prevention Guide. A printed copy of this document, EPA/600/R-92/088, may be ordered from U.S. EPA's Pollution Prevention Research Branch in Cincinnati, Ohio by phone at (513)569-7215 or by FAX at (513)569-7111. A copy may also be requested from Ohio EPA, Office of Pollution Prevention by calling (614)644-3469 or by FAX at (614)644-2807.


FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION GUIDE

U.S. EPA, May 1992
EPA/600/R-92/088

Office of Solid Waste
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Washington, D.C. 20460

Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory
Office of Research and Development
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Cincinnati, Ohio 45268


NOTICE

This Guide has been subjected to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency peer and administrative review and approved for publication. Approval does not signify that the contents necessarily reflect the views and policies of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, nor does mention of trade names or commercial products constitute endorsement or recommendation for use. This document is intended as advisory guidance only in developing approaches for pollution prevention. Compliance with environmental and occupational safety and health laws is the responsibility of each individual business and is not the focus of this document.

Users are encouraged to duplicate portions of this publication as needed to implement a pollution prevention program. Organizations interested in reprinting and distributing the entire Guide should contact the Pollution Prevention Research Branch, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, Ohio, 45268, to obtain a reproducible master.


FOREWORD

Today's rapidly changing technologies and industrial products and practices carry the risk of generating materials that, if improperly managed, can threaten public health and the environment. With the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990, the U.S. Congress established pollution prevention as a "national objective" and the most important component of the environmental management hierarchy. Thus, national policy declares that the creation of potential pollutants should be prevented or reduced during the production cycle whenever feasible.

In carrying out its program to encourage the adoption of Pollution Prevention, the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory and the Office of Solid Waste offer this Facility Pollution Prevention Guide. The Guide's predecessor, the Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual, published in 1988, concentrated primarily on the waste types covered in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). In contrast, this edition deals with "multimedia" pollution prevention. This reflects our national realization, as demonstrated in the 1990 legislation, that we must look at wastes more broadly if we are to protect the environment adequately. That is, it is important to minimize all pollutants, including air emissions, wastewater discharges, and solid wastes as well as energy and water consumption. In addition to controlling waste creation during the production process, we need to design products that will have less impact on the environment while in use and after disposal.

This edition of the Guide is written for those individuals responsible for implementing pollution prevention in their facilities. It is intended to help small- to medium-sized production facilities develop broad-based, multimedia pollution prevention programs. It describes how to identify, assess, and implement opportunities for preventing pollution and how to stimulate the ongoing search for such opportunities. Companies that adopt this approach typically find that they reduce both their operating costs and their potential liabilities, in addition to helping to preserve the environment.

This is not intended to be a prescriptive, comprehensive document. It is necessarily a generalized approach, since it is intended for use by companies in all business and geographic areas. You are in the best position to judge how to develop a program that will fit your circumstances. We have addressed the basic steps involved in developing an adequate pollution prevention program. The true success of your efforts will be determined by the extent to which you are able to go beyond these basics. Because we strongly encourage you to go beyond a minimal program, this Guide also provides references and information sources that will help you expand your efforts.


ABSTRACT

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) developed the Facility Pollution Prevention Guide for those who are interested in and responsible for pollution prevention in industrial or service facilities. It summarizes the benefits of a company-wide pollution prevention program and suggests ways to incorporate pollution prevention in company policies and practices.

The Guide describes how to establish a company-wide pollution prevention program. It outlines procedures for conducting a preliminary assessment to identify opportunities for waste reduction or elimination. Then, it describes how to use the results of this preassessment to prioritize areas for detailed assessment, how to use the detailed assessment to develop pollution prevention options, and how to implement those options that withstand feasibility analysis.

Methods of evaluating, adjusting, and maintaining the program are described. Later chapters deal with cost analysis for pollution prevention projects and with the roles of product design and energy conservation in pollution prevention.

Appendices consist of materials that will support the pollution prevention effort: assessment worksheets, sources of additional information, examples of evaluative methods, and a glossary.

The draft information used for this Guide was compiled and prepared by Battelle, Columbus, Ohio, under Contract No. 68-CO-0003 for the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development.


CONTENTS

NOTICE

FOREWORD

ABSTRACT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

(txt, 30k) CHAPTER 1 DECIDING ON POLLUTION PREVENTION

(txt, 38k) CHAPTER 2 DEVELOPING A POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRAM

(txt, 40k) CHAPTER 3 DEVELOPING AND IMPLEMENTING POLLUTION PREVENTION PROJECTS

(txt, 15k) CHAPTER 4 MEASURING POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRESS

(txt, 16k) CHAPTER 5 MAINTAINING THE POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRAM

(txt, 21k) CHAPTER 6 ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF POLLUTION PREVENTION PROJECTS

(txt, 7k) CHAPTER 7 DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTALLY COMPATIBLE PRODUCTS

(txt, 6k) CHAPTER 8 ENERGY CONSERVATION AND POLLUTION PREVENTION

APPENDICES

(txt, 3k) APPENDIX A POLLUTION PREVENTION WORKSHEETS

(txt, 21k) APPENDIX B INDUSTRY-SPECIFIC CHECKLISTS

(txt, 5k) APPENDIX C CUSTOMIZED POLLUTION PREVENTION WORKSHEETS

(txt, 25k) APPENDIX D TECHNICAL/FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS

(txt, 4k) APPENDIX E OPTION RATING: WEIGHTED SUM METHOD

(txt, 7k) APPENDIX F ECONOMIC EVALUATION EXAMPLE

(txt, 19k) APPENDIX G POLLUTION PREVENTION REFERENCE MATERIAL

(txt, 8k) APPENDIX H GLOSSARY OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TERMS


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This Guide was prepared under the direction and coordination of Lisa Brown of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), Pollution Prevention Research Branch, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Battelle compiled and prepared the information used for this Guide under the direction of Bob Olfenbuttel. Participating in this effort for Battelle were Larry Smith, David Evers, Lynn Copley-Graves, Carol Young, and Sandra Clark.

Contributions were made by U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development, the U.S. EPA Office of Solid Waste, the pollution prevention organizations in the U.S. EPA Regional Offices, state pollution prevention organizations, and members of academia and industry.

Specifically, the following people provided significant assistance:

Patrick Pesacreta
Office of Solid Waste
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Gary Hunt
North Carolina Office of Waste Reduction

Deborah Hanlon & Martin Spitzer
Pollution Prevention Division
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Abby Swaine
Region I Pollution Prevention Program
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Thomasine Bayless
Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Contributions to the development of this Guide were also made by the following people:

Alan Rimer
Alliance Technologies Corporation

Eugene B. Pepper
Office of Environmental Coordination
State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations

Harry W. Edwards
Colorado State University

David L. Thomas, Ph.D.
Hazardous Waste Research and Information Center

Azita Yazdani
Pollution Prevention International

David M. Benforado
3M Corporation

R. Lee Byers
Aluminum Company of America

James R. Aldrich
University of Cincinnati

Henry W. Nowick
Envirocorp

James Edward
Pollution Prevention Division
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Chet McLaughlin
Region VII
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Marvin Fleischman & Clay Hansen
University of Louisville

Charles A. Pittinger, PhD
The Procter & Gamble Company

H. Lanier Hickman, Jr.
GRCDA/SWANA

Dent Williams
DIPEC

Charles Wentz
Argonne National Laboratory

Linda G. Pratt
San Diego County Department of Health Services

Bruce Cranford
U.S. Department of Energy

L. M. Fischer
Allied-Signal

Thomas R. Hersey, Jr.
Erie County Pollution Prevention Program

Richard F. Nowina
Ontario Waste Management Corporation

David Hartley & Robert Ludwig
California Department of Toxic Substance Control

Bob Carter
Waste Reduction Resource Center -- Southeast

Terry Foecke
WRITAR

International contributions were made by:

Barbel Hegenbart & Stefan Millonig
IOW & VOW
Austria

Brian Pearson
Aspects International Ltd.
England

Thomas Gutwinski
BAUM
Austria

Audun Amundsen
Stiftelsen Ostfoldforskning
Norway

Birgitte B. Nielsen
Rendan A/S
Denmark

Michel Suijkerbuijk
Innovatiecentrum Overijssel
Netherlands

Per Kirkebak
Peterson A S
Norway

Han Brezet & Bas Kothuis
TME
Netherlands

Sybren de Hoo
NOTA
Netherlands

Special acknowledgement is given to all members of the Pollution Prevention Research Branch, especially:

Ruth Corn, Rita Bender, Harry Freeman, Ivars Licis, Paul Randall, Mary Ann Curran and Anne Robertson.


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